Chuura, Chaprasi, Chuurian and Khawaja Sira: Making a Nation out of Words

*Originally posted on The Friday Times’ Blog.

Words. They have the power to inspire and incite; uplift and daunt. From Martin Luther King Jr’s ‘I have a dream’ to the fall of the Berlin Wall, they have wielded enormous influence and impact. Most importantly, they mould mindsets.

Often certain words, terms and sayings become such a commonality in cultures that their nature starts to elude people. Such is the case in Pakistan; questionable sayings, practices and customs that should usually arouse attention have become so imbedded in the society that they’ve become a part of us.

“Hum nay choorian nahi pehni hui!”  (We are not wearing bangles), that consigns femininity as derogatory is one that has assumed form of a very popular phrase amongst the tub-thumping, populist rhetoric in the political arena of Pakistan.  

Another popular example given to children to explain the consequences of deviance from or slack in studies is “Parho gay nahi tau chaparasi ban jao gay” or “Parho gay nahi tau cycle stand par lag jao gay” and so on.  

Those who sweep and clean our homes, roads, streets and country and those who toil at workshops are reduced to lowly figures of little worth, therefore, little respect. 

Consciously or unconsciously, this idea is implanted in the child’s impressionable mind.

Socialisation is defined as a continuing process, beginning in infancy, whereby an individual learns the culture of a society; the distinction between right and wrong; the social dictates of his or her gender; the kind of behaviour that is expected of him or her – in short, his or her social identity and person that inevitably is intended to conform to the social demands and be socially and culturally appropriate. This process of learning is often based on interactions between the individual and other members of the society, and language is the hinge of interaction.

It is through language that the beliefs and ideas of the society, even if they be social prejudices, the parameters of what is socially acceptable and what is not are conveyed and instilled into a child or individual which grow with him or into him as part of his personality and identity formation. 



Linguistic anthropology is a whole interdisciplinary study dedicated to understanding the effect language yields on social life, beliefs and identity of an individual.

“Language socialisation is a concept we take to mean both socialisation through language and socialization to use language. Children and other novices in society acquire tacit knowledge of principles of social order and systems of belief  through exposure to and participation in language-mediated interation. Language use is then a major if not the major tool for conveying sociocultural knowledge and a powerful medium of socialisation.” 

Transgenders in Pakistan are also mentioned on the same lines, terming someone which is considered an insult and abuse, the words ’khussra’ and ’khawaja sira’ have been assigned the status of pejoratives just like the aforementioned sweepers and cleaners. A recent example of the usage was heard with the name of Khawaja Saad Rafique (FYI, to whom I bear no relation) by many of those who related him to the alleged rigging at NA-125 in the May 11th elections.

PAKISTAN-UNREST-VOTE-SEXNotwithstanding the fact that the transgendered are what they are as products of nature, their’s is neither a life one would wish to lead nor a fate one would desire especially in Pakistan where they are ostracized and degraded for what is beyond their being. 

Moreover, language prejudices may also acquire a religious colour skewed against people of a certain faith that translatte into stereotypes which may run into branding all Christians in Pakistan to be chooray, chaprasi or jamadars or possessing capabilities only fit to these. This is to be considered keeping in mind that these occupations have been debased into pejoratives.

It is instances and patterns like these that reproduce the rotten elements in our culture and society – as they have been passed down through language – : condescension of some classes against others; relative/occasional and situational employment of respect and regard towards others. In short, social decadence. 

The result is often witnessed at public places like restaurants where poor waiters are subjected to much impolite, crude and rude behavior by many or when domestic helpers are made objects of jests and jokes.

A nation can be judged vastly from its character and conduct which are, need I state, shaped by communication of the society’s ideas, beliefs, values, norms and mindset that constitute its culture. And language, is the vehicle of culture. 

All humans and individuals are equal and it is a demand of time that Pakistan transcends beyond the self-constructed barriers of class, ethnicity, race, sect, gender, regression and myopia. Place your words in your thoughts before letting them ride your tongue, measure their meanings, gauge their effects and consequences. thoughts and calculate their consequences for yourself and others. 


For Pakistan to progress and prosper, the people will have to realize that change must not always and necessarily have to spring from the top but must also begin from within. Introspection, critical reflection must govern us first and foremost. We must be the regulators of ourselves for it is us that form a society from which the heart of a country, a nation is born. 

~ Hafsa Khawaja

13 comments on “Chuura, Chaprasi, Chuurian and Khawaja Sira: Making a Nation out of Words

  1. White Pearl says:

    Wonderfully written ! The issues in our society you have pointed out are really important ones to ponder upon and you have did the justice. We won’t be succeeded until we learn giving respect to every individual regardless of his color cast creed occupation etc….

  2. Mohammad Ali says:

    So true it is! We have to change ourself. These are the worst elements in our society degrading or disrespecting people for what they do is really awful thinking needs to be changed and I know its a long process but still it has to be done.

    – Ali

    • Thank you for reading and sparing the time to leave feedback Ali!
      Absolutely, as I said, change must not necessarily spring from the top but must spring from within us. It sure is a long journey, both for Pakistan and us.

  3. Hamza says:

    As I went further down reading this article, my smile just got wider and wider. This is probably one of the best things that you have written Hafsa. A very important issue that you have explained through the very root cause of it really: language 🙂

    This is just wonderful. I just have one thing to say, try and get these articles published in main stream blogs of the country, and in a much simple language so that for the normal people, it actually makes a difference. I am well aware that you care deeply and naturally want to make a difference. However, writers have the tendency, me included, to get carried away using only words that fit perfectly or are perfectly apt for the context. Sometimes pushing for that perfection makes the writer or his/her thoughts, too intimidating for the average reader.

    Lovely article Hafsa, really …

    • A heartfelt thank you again for always reading and commenting on what I write! I value it greatly.
      I’m really glad that you liked it, as I told someone else : there was a time I used such words myself, until one day I stopped to ponder upon their meaning and was left ashamed; vowed to avoid them as much as I can.
      It is unfortunate how entrenched such stuff is in our language and society; our routines.
      What we need to realize to become a part of the solution to Pakistan’s problems today is that we are as much a part of them as anything or anyone else.

      Do let me know which mainstream blogs you have in mind, I’d be happy to consider for future posts.
      Ofcourse! I’ve often been told to cut down on ‘huge’ words and I’m trying to stick to that very important point/criticism and trying to simplify my expression for comfortable reader consumption. (Nobody wants to sounds like Zmrzain now, do they? :p)
      Thank you for reminding me of that, will try to keep it in mind to a greater degree now!

      • Hamza says:

        I agree with the view that children are born free of prejudice. It is only what they pick up from the society around them. Each one of us makes mistakes. The key is to be alert to one’s social misgivings and amend them, not just physically but in the brain. I have also used some of these words through very rarely … and I’d say I have amended even that. But the fight in the brain .. it keeps re-emering in very different ways. Because the society does not go away : )

        Yes, NODODY should suffer the ignominy and cultural saute of Zmrzain. See what I did there ? :p

  4. Syeda Maham says:

    Okay may be I am a ‘leetle bit ‘ late to comment on this post, but still better late than never.I totally agree with you here.The sad part of the story is seeing very educated people being comfortable with these stereotypes.Lack of netiquette and online abuse are rather not-so-bright examples of parha likha Pakistan.People ‘should’ behave themselves.Even our religion tells us so.

    As my mom incessantly says ‘watch your words’ 🙂

    P.S. I really like your blog.Good work!

  5. one of the best of your’s. i was getting bored in office and decided to read some valuable words. i came across your blogs, i read many but i like most this one and literally i didn’t bore for a single neno-second 🙂
    Keep spreading precious words. (Y)

  6. Rehan says:

    The derogatory and crude language has taken on a new dimension in the arena of politics as well . I won’t elaborate since we are familiar with most of the “titles” . Language indeed defines a nation and it’s usage and ab usage, even more so.

    • This return of all that is uncouth in our political arena, which I feel was buried or suppressed to an extent between N and PPP, has been very depressing.
      It is deplorable that aspiring leaders should resort to such verbal thuggery in the pursuit.
      Thank you for reading and sparing the time to comment!

  7. rehanud1975 says:

    I think words are essentially very powerful tools and words are what give rise to actions. It’s words that the Media so skillfully employs to change mindsets . What we need to focus is the usage of words . For example , we can call “Kooray wala” as “Safai wala” , no? And the word “Khuwaja Sira” is not bad in itself , it’s much better than it’s vulgar equivalents , I think. The problem lies with the way we look at things , even if we start using the proper words and expressions , I don’t think it would matter unless we do something about our attitude behind the words . What do you think ?

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